The challenge: light and heavy at the same timeThe principle of using floating blankets to calm the rough surface of a body of liquid is well known, and is used in aviation and aeronautics as well as in transporting liquid cargo in trucks. It has not seen use in LNG tankers so far because the extremely low temperatures in their tanks place correspondingly extreme demands on the contact materials. Another challenge is posed by apparently contradictory physical requirements: on the one hand an anti-sloshing blanket has to be lightweight in order to float at every level of load, yet it must also be sufficiently heavy to have an anti-sloshing effect. In addition, the material has to be soft in order to withstand repeated severe impact against the walls of the tank while also not damaging the walls.
The newly developed anti-sloshing blanket system made of Basotect meets these requirements. The melamine resin foam’s open-celled structure enables it to absorb a certain amount of LNG, which increases the blanket’s overall inertia. Above all, however, Basotect differs from other foams because it retains its properties even at extremely low temperatures.
Moreover, sloshing in closed containers with the dimensions of tanks used for transporting LNG can generate extremely high-impact loads, which can damage the tank walls. Usually, these LNG tanks of the membrane type cargo containment system are built with an octagonal cross-section as an initial means of reducing sloshing and therefore also the impact load against their walls. However, this measure is not sufficient when the tanks are only half full.
Tests at universities confirm efficiencyUsing a wave simulator, the design of the Basotect blanket has been tested in South Korea by the departments of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering at Seoul National University and Pusan National University. The correctly dimensioned, transparent container used to simulate the sloshing conditions has the octagonal shape of an LNG tank and is equipped with pressure sensors in its walls. Tests showed that the Basotect blanket was able to considerably reduce sloshing and reduce peak pressures against the walls by about one-fifth. Because there is less sloshing, shipbuilders can also eliminate two corners of the octagonal shape and thus have right angles at the top of the tank. This means that about five percent more LNG can be stored and the production cost can be saved in the simplified tank shape.
Also, the anti-sloshing system considerably reduces undesired abrupt vaporization in operation which could lead to a sudden increase of internal pressure. The vaporization is measured with the so called boil-off rate (BOR). The BOR is mainly determined by how well the insulation succeeds in preventing heat transfer from the LNG to its surroundings. The reduction of BOR is an additional benefit of the anti-sloshing blanket solution that some ship owners and operators are asking for: i t improves safety and increases the amount of liquefied gas that arrives at the harbor. Because the blanket not only protects against sloshing but also lowers the boil-off rate, the concept is known as ABAS (= Anti-Boil-Off Anti-Sloshing).
Anti-sloshing is good for the environmentUse of anti-sloshing blankets made of Basotect changes both economic and environmental aspects of LNG transport, and thus helps make it more sustainable. Because LNG tankers will be able to take different load levels, it will be possible for them to call at several harbors in succession and to unload their contents based on need. This will reduce the number of no-load journeys and therefore also costs while at the same time making an important contribution to resource efficiency.
In 2012, Samsung received “general approval” for the ABAS concept from two leading classification companies for shipping worldwide, the American Bureau of Shipping in Houston, Texas, USA, and the Bureau Veritas in Paris, France. General approval is a key part of the authorization process for the international shipping industry. It testifies that the application has been subjected to extensive testing for use and found to conform to international standards.